In previous lessons, we learned and practiced True-False-Not Given with short passages (mini-passages). In order to help students master test-taking techniques and increase reading speed in the IELTs Reading test, today’s lesson is designed with a passage of the same length and difficulty as the real test.
Before starting to do the test, let’s also review the test strategy!
- Read the question first. Normally, the TF NG format usually has 7-10 questions, so if we read all the questions at once we can hardly remember. The best way candidates should do is to read 2 sentences one at a time. Break each question down into small pieces of information or key words.
- The next step is to read the passage. A special feature is that the questions in the T/F/NG format are arranged in order from top to bottom according to the information of the passage. Therefore, the information in sentence 1 will definitely appear before the second sentence and similarly, sentence 2 will appear before sentence 3. This helps us to locate the information to read. For example, if sentence 2 is Not Given, if we don’t read sentence 3 first, it is likely that we will lose time reading the whole article because the information in sentence 2 is missing or not mentioned.
- After identifying relevant information in the passage, we compare the information between the question and the passage (based on the key words we identified in step 1).
- Enter True if all the information matches, False if there is opposite or different information and Not Given when information is missing or not mentioned.
The True/False/Not Given form and the Yes/No/Not Given form do exactly the same thing. Candidates should read the requirements carefully before filling in the answer sheet. If the question asks to fill in Yes/No but in the answer sheet we write True/False, it will not be accepted and vice versa.
Read the passage below and answer questions from 1-7
Adults and children are frequently with statements about the alarming rate of loss of tropical rainforests. For example, one graphic illustration to which children might easily relate is the estimate that rainforests are being destroyed at a rate equivalent to one thousand football fields every forty minutes – about the duration of a normal classroom period. In the face of the frequent and often vivid media coverage, it is likely that children will have formed ideas about rainforests – what and where they are, why they are important, what endangers them – independent of any formal tuition. It is also possible that some of these ideas will be mistaken.
Many studies have shown that children harbor misconceptions about ‘pure’, curriculum science. These misconceptions do not remain isolated but become incorporated into a multifaceted, but organized, conceptual framework, making it and the component ideas, some of which are erroneous, more robust but also accessible to modification. These ideas may be developed by children absorbing ideas through the popular media. Sometimes this information may be erroneous. It seems schools may not be providing an opportunity for children to re-express their ideas and so have them tested and refined by teachers and their peers.
Despite the extensive coverage in the popular media of the destruction of rainforests, little formal information is available about children’s ideas in this area. The aim of the present study is to start to provide such information, to help teachers design their educational strategies to build upon correct ideas and to displace misconceptions and to plan programs in environmental studies in their schools.
The study surveys children’s scientific knowledge and attitudes to rainforests. Secondary school children were asked to complete a questionnaire containing five open-form questions. The most frequent responses to the first question were descriptions which are self-evident from the term ‘rainforest’. Some children describe them as damp, wet or hot. The second question concerns the geographical location of rainforests. The commonest responses were continents or countries: Africa (given by 43% of children), South America (30%), Brazil (25%). Some children also gave more general locations, such as being near the Equator.
Responses to question three concerned the importance of rainforests. The dominant idea, raised by 64% of the pupils, was that rainforests provide animals with habitats. Fewer students responded that rainforests provide plant habitats, and even fewer mentioned the indigenous populations of rainforests. More girls (70%) than boys (60%) raised the idea of rainforest as animal habitats.
similarly, but at a lower level, more girls (13%) than boys (5%) said that rainforests provided human habitats. These observations are generally consistent with our previous studies of pupils’ views about the use and conservation of rainforests, in which girls were shown to be more sympathetic to animals and expressed views which seem to place an intrinsic value on non-human animal life.
The fourth question concerns the causes of the destruction of rainforests. Perhaps encouragingly, more than half of the pupils (59%) identified that it is human activities which are destroying rainforests, some personalising the responsibility by the use of terms as ‘we are’. About 18% of the pupils referred specifically to logging activity.
One misconception, expressed by some 10% of the pupils, was that acid rain is responsible for rainforest destruction; a similar proportion said that pollution is destroying rainforests. Here, children are confusing rainforest destruction with damage to the forests of Western Europe by these factors. While two fifths of the students provided the information that the rainforests provide oxygen, in some cases this response also embraced the misconception that rainforest destruction would reduce atmospheric oxygen, making the atmosphere incompatible with human life on Earth.
In answer to the final question about the importance of rainforests conservation, the majority of children simply said that we need rainforests to survive. Only a few of the pupils (6%) mentioned that rainforest destruction may contribute to global warming. This is surprising considering the high level of media coverage on this issue. Some children expressed the idea that the conservation of rainforests is not important.
The results of this study suggest that certain ideas predominate in the thinking of children about rainforests. Pupils’ responses indicate some misconceptions in basic scientific knowledge of rainforests’ destruction such as their ideas about rainforests as habitats for animals, plants and humans and the relationship between climatic change and of rainforests.
Pupils did not volunteer ideas that suggested that they appreciate the complexity of causes of rainforest destruction. In other words, they gave no indication of an appreciation of either the range of ways in which rainforests are important or the complex social, economic and political factors which drive the activities which are destroying the rainforests. One encouragement is that the results of similar studies about other environmental issues suggest that older children seem to acquire the ability to appreciate, value and evaluate conflicting views. Environmental education offers an arena in which these skills can be developed, which is essential for these children as future decision-makers
1 The plight of the rainforests has been greatly ignored by the media.
2 Children only accept opinions on rainforests that they encounter in their classrooms.
3 It has been suggested that children hold mistaken views about the ‘pure’ science that they study at school.
4 The fact that children’s ideas about science form part of a larger framework of ideas means that it is easier to change them.
5 The study involved asking children a number of yes/no questions such as ‘Are there any rainforests in Africa?’
6 The study reported here follows on from a series of studies that have looked at children’s understanding of rainforests.
7 A second study has been planned to investigate primary school children’s ideas about rainforests.
ANSWER AND EXPLANATION
We find information that sentence 1 appears in the first line of paragraph 1: Adults and children are frequently with statements about the alarming rate of loss of tropical rainforests
Let’s see how this question is paraphrasing!
Phrase the plight of the rainforests rewritten as loss of tropical rainforests. From the light means bad or difficult situation, hence the same meaning as loss of tropical rainforests
We again see in the question the phrase: greatly ignored (forgotten, ignored) while in the passage appears the phrase frequently…about the alarming rate… (frequently approached…about the alarming rate of decline of…).2 these two phrases have opposite meanings, causing the 2 points of view between the question and the passage to conflict.
—-> So we conclude the answer to this question is False
Continue reading paragraph 1 and you will find information for question 2 that appears in the sentence: In the face of the frequent and often vivid media coverage, it is likely that children will have formed ideas about rainforests – what and where they are, why they are important, what endangers them – independent of any formal tuition.
We see that the object mentioned in both the question and the passage is children.
But in the assert question: only accept opinions on rainforests that they encounter in their classrooms. (They only accept the views they have learned in class about the rainforest.) Meanwhile, you can easily find the point of view in the passage: children will have formed ideas about rainforests (Children have their opinion about rain forest).
Thus, the point of view between the question and the passage is contradictory. Students conclude that the answer is False
Similarly, you can easily find the sentence containing the information mentioned in question 3 at the beginning of paragraph 3: Many studies have shown that children harbor misconceptions about ‘pure’, curriculum science.
Phrase hold mistaken views paraphrased to harbor misconceptions.
Can you confirm that the answer to this question is True
The next sentences you do the same
Sentence contains information: These misconceptions do not remain isolated but become incorporated into a multifaceted, but organized, conceptual framework, making it and the component ideas, some of which are erroneous, more robust but also accessible to modification
The phrase is paraphrased: it is easier to change them = accessible to modification.
Sentence contains information: Secondary school children were asked to complete a questionnaire containing five open-form questions.
Compare information: yes/no questions # open-form questions.
The information in the question and the passage is different, we conclude the answer is False
Sentence contains information: One encouragement is that the results of similar studies about other environmental issues suggest that older children seem to acquire the ability to appreciate, value and evaluate conflicting views
The phrase is paraphrased: Follows on from a series of studies = One encouragement…. the results of similar studies
Environmental issues = Rainforests.
- NOT GIVEN
Sentence 7 information is not mentioned
Through the T/F/NG format, we can visualize the paraphrasing technique that is widely applied in many other exercises. To reinforce the vocabulary as well as the paraphrasing strategy applied in the Reading T/F/NG and many others, remember to note down the paraphrased phrases into a key words table. for review!
Here is an example of how to tabulate key words
|keywords in questions||similar words in passage|
|the light||the loss|
|hold mistaken views||harbor misconceptions|
|environmental issues||tropical rainforests|
Wish you always confident in the face of Reading T/F/NG!