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Unit 2.1: Instructions for doing exercises – Preparation for the reading test online

I. REVIEW

Hello everyone, today we are going to review the strategy of combining the solution of a reading sample with the Completing Tables exercise.

When doing this exercise, pay attention to:

– Number of words allowed to fill in a position

– Predict the type of word that can be filled in the required position (Noun/Verb/Adj/Adv)

– The word to fill will go near which keywords. Find the synonyms or paraphrases of those keywords

– Check the answer again

II. MINI PASSAGE

An important project, led by the biological anthropologist Robert Williams, focused on the variants (called Gm all types) of one particular protein – immunologic G – found in the fluid portion of human blood. All proteins ‘drift’, or produce variants, over the generations, and members of an interbreeding human population will share a set of such variants. Thus, by comparing the Gm allotypes of two different populations (eg two Indian tribes), one can establish their genetic distance, which itself can be calibrated to give an indication of the length of time since these populations last interbred.

Williams and his colleagues sampled the blood of over 5,000 American Indians in western North America during a twenty- year period. They found that their Gm allotypes could be divided into two groups, one of which also corresponded to the genetic typing of Central and South American Indians. Other tests showed that the Inuit (or Eskimo) and Aleut3 formed a third group. From this evidence it was deduced that there had been three major waves of migration across the Bering Strait. The first, Paleo – Indian wave more than 15,000 years ago was ancestral to all Central and South American Indians. The second wave, about 14,000-12,000 years ago, brought No-Dene hunters ancestors of the Navajo and Apache (who only migrated south from Canada about 600 or 700 years ago). The third wave perhaps 10,000 or 9,000 years ago saw the migration from North-east Asia of groups ancestral to the modem Eskimo and Aleut.

How far does other research support these conclusions? Geneticist Douglas Wallace has studied mitochondrial DNA4 in blood samples from three widely separated Native American groups: Pima- Papago Indians in Arizona, Maya Indians on the Yucatan peninsula, Mexico, and Ticuna Indians in the Upper Amazon region of Brazil. As would have been predicted by Robert Williams’ work, all three groups appear to be descended from the same ancestral (Paleo-Indian) population.

  A complete set of excellent IELTS vocabulary materials

There are two other kinds of research that have thrown some light on the origins of the Native American population; they involve the study of teeth and of languages. The biological anthropologist Christy Turner is on expert in the analysis of changing physical characteristics in human teeth. He argues that tooth crowns and roots5 have a high genetic component, minimally affected by environmental and other factors. Studies carried out by Turner of many thousands of New and Old World specimens, both ancient and modern, suggest ‘hot the majority of prehistoric Americans are linked to Northern Asian populations by crown and root traits such as incisor6 shoveling (a scooping out on one or both surfaces of the tooth), single-rooted upper first premolars6 and triple-rooted lower first molars6.

1. New World: the American continent, as opposed to the so-called Old World of Europe, Asia and Africa
2. Modern Native America: an American descended from the groups that were native to America
3. Inuit and Aleut: two of the ethnic groups native to the northern region of North America (ie northern Canada and Greenland)
4. DNA: the substance in which genetic information is stored
5. Crown/ Root: Parts of the tooth
6. incisor/premolar/molar: kinds of teeth

Questions 22-25
The passage refers to the three-wave theory of early migration to the Americas. It also suggests in which of these three waves the ancestors of various groups of modern native Americans first reached the continent.

Classify the groups named in the table below as originated from

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A the first wave
REMOVE the second wave
OLD the third wave

Write the correct letter. A. B or C. in boxes 22-25 on your answer sheet.

Name of Group

Wave Number

Inuit

22 ………….

Apache

23 ………….

Pima-Papago

24 …………………..

Ticuna

25 ………….

III. DISCUSSION

Which answer did you choose and what do you think? Let’s discuss together

Choose the correct answer A/B/C in the column on the left

(first) Use the keyword “Inuit” and “wave

–>> Other tests showed that the Inuit (or Eskimo) and Aleut3 formed a third group.

–>> The third wave perhaps 10,000 or 9,000 years ago saw the migration from North-east Asia of groups ancestral to the modem Eskimo and Aleut.

–>> Answer: OLD

(2) Use the keyword “Apache

–>> The second wave, about 14,000-12,000 years ago, brought No-Dene hunters ancestors of the Navajo and Apache

–>> Answer: REMOVE

(3) Use the keyword “Pima-Papago

–>> THEYow far does other research support these conclusions? Geneticist Douglas Wallace has studied mitochondrial DNA4 in blood samples from three widely separated Native American groups: Pima- Papago Indians in Arizona, Maya Indians on the Yucatan peninsula, Mexico, and Ticuna Indians in the Upper Amazon region of Brazil.

–>> This place belongs to the first wave

–>> Answer: A

(4) Use the keyword “Ticuna

–>> How far does other research support these conclusions? Geneticist Douglas Wallace has studied mitochondrial DNA4 in blood samples from three widely separated Native American groups: Pima- Papago Indians in Arizona, Maya Indians on the Yucatan peninsula, Mexico, and Ticuna Indians in the Upper Amazon region of Brazil.

–>> This place belongs to the first wave

–>> Answers A

This exercise is not difficult if we have a clear strategy and good scanning skills, right? Please try other Reading- Completing Tables exercises from IELTS- Fighter <3

Good luck with your studies <3

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