Medical English: Pulmonary Injury

damage to the pleura

Hello guys, we continue to learn about some English terms in Diagnostic Imaging and today I will learn about pleural lesions on chest radiograph.

1.Pneumothorax / ˌnu məˈθɔræks /: pneumothorax

Radiological features to look for: X-ray features to look for:

One side is blacker (no lung in it)

One side of the lung is darker (no lung parenchyma in it)

The lung edge is seen and there are no lung markings beyond the lung edge.

Visible pulmonary margin and no traces of lung (parenchyma) outside of lung.

Check for mediastinal shift

Check mediastinal displacement.

Shift of the mediastinum away from the side of the pneumothorax indicates a tension pneumothorax.

The displacement of the mediastinum away towards the pneumothorax side indicates a pressurized pneumothorax

– Mediastinum / ˌmi di æˈstaɪ nəm / (n): mediastinum

– Tension pneumothorax / ˈtenʃn ˌnu məˈθɔræks /: pneumothorax under pressure

More prominent vascular markings in the opposite lung.

The vascular traces are more pronounced in the opposite lung.

As a pneumothorax causes the affected lung to collapse, most of the right ventricular output is delivered to the opposite lung, leading to increased vascular markings on an erect chest X- ray.

When pneumothorax causes a collapsed lung, most of the right ventricular output is delivered to the opposite lung, resulting in increased (clear) vascular markings on a straight chest radiograph.

– Erect / plain chest X-ray: X-ray film of the straight chest

– Lateral chest X-ray: Lateral chest X-ray film

– Hydro-pneumothorax: pneumothorax – pleural fluid

2. Pleural effusion / ˈplʊərəl / / ɪˈfyu ʒən / ∶ pleural effusion

Classical radiological appearance of a pleural effusion: classical X-ray feature of pleural effusion

Homogenous dense opacity (homogenous whiteness)

Uniform blurred image (solid white image)

– Homogenous / həˈmɒdʒə nəs /: homogenous

Loss of the costophrenic angle.

Loss of diaphragm angle (Prison angle diaphragm)

Meniscus (iehigher laterally than medially), therefore the upper border will be concave.

Concave curve (i.e. higher towards the side than in the middle), so the border at the top will be concave (Damoiseau curve)

Loss of hemidiaphragm.

Delete the diaphragm dome

No air bronchogram.

There is no bronchoscope inside

Pleurisy / ˈplʊərə si /: pleurisy

Pleural effusion will include

+ Hemothorax / Haemothorax / hē’mə-rawr’ăks’ /: pleural hemorrhage

+ Pleural empyema / ˈplʊərəl / / ˌɛm piˈi mə /: Pus pus overflow

+ Chylothorax / kī’lō-rawr’ăks /: Pleural support

– Thoracentesis / ˌθɔrə sɛnˈti sɪs /: pleural puncture

How is Pleural fluid different from Pleural effusion?

That is when a patient has a pleural effusion, the doctor will do a procedure called a thoracentesis to withdraw fluid to test or relieve the patient’s dyspnea. We call the pleural fluid or normal in the pleural cavity (pleural fluid) also has some physiological pleural fluid.

3.Pleural thickening / ˈplʊərəl / / ˈθɪkənɪŋ /: pleural thickening

4.Pleural tumor / ˈplʊərəl / / ˈtuːmər /: Pleural tumor

Reference source: pleural lesions
Chest X-rays for Medical Students…/basic-interpretation
Wish everyone a good study!
Read back old articles at:
Basic Medical English Course:


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