English Medical Diagnostic Imaging – Visual Characteristics and Thyroid Pathology



Please try to translate some of the following passages to both review your knowledge and learn more vocabulary about visual features and embryology of the thyroid gland.

Instructions: Self-translate English into Vietnamese, then click on translate to display the translation and compare with your translation.

1. Embryology

The thyroid gland develops from the proximal primitive foregut between the first and second pharyngeal pouches at the foramen cecum, in the midline of the base of the tongue.

The thyroid gland develops from the anterior primitive intestinal embryo / proximal intestine between the first and second oropharyngeal sac at the stoma, on the midline of the tongue base.

During the 5th embryonic week, a diverticulum forms at the foramen which inferiorly migrates anterior to the body of the hyoid bone, curving posterior and superiorly to reach behind the bone before once more turning inferiorly and continuing anterior to the larynx, forming the thyroglossal 1 , 3.7.

During the fifth week of the embryo, a diverticulosis forms in the cavity, which moves lower down to the front of the hull, curves back and forth to reach behind the bone before again spinning. out below and further to the front of the larynx, forming the laryngeal tube 1,3,7.

The tip of the duct bifurcates, forming the two lobes of the gland. The parafollicular cells (C cells) responsible for calcitonin production are derived from separate tissue, the ultimobranchial body, a small diverticulum of the fourth pharyngeal pouch.

The end of the tube is split into two, forming two lobes of the gland. Paracysts (C cells) are responsible for the production of separate tissue-derived calcitonin (TK crest), the terminal gill, a small diverticula of the fourth oropharynx.

2. Radiographic appearance

Image point:

Ultrasound – Ultrasound
• the normal thyroid gland has a homogeneous appearance

Normal thyroid has uniform characteristics

• the capsule may appear as a thin hyperechoic line.

The armor can appear as a thin line of amplification.

• each lobe normally measures:

each lobe is of normal size:

 length: 4-7 cm

Height: 4-7 cm

 depth: <2 cm

Before-after afternoon: <2 cm

 isthmus <0.5 cm deep

waist <0.5 cm

• volume (excluding isthmus, unless its thickness is> 3 mm)

Volume (excluding waist, unless waist thickness> 3mm)

 10-15 mL for females – 10-15 mL in females
 12-18 mL for males – 12-18 mL for males

3. Inflammatory conditions: thyroiditis

Inflammation: inflammation of the thyroid gland

3.1. Autoimmune


• Graves disease – Graves disease (Basedow)
• de Quervain thyroiditis (subacute granulomatous)

de Quervain thyroiditis (subacute granulomatous inflammation)

 postviral

after viral infection

 associated with HLA-B35

in association with HLA-B35

 acutely there is an increase in thyroid hormone, with a resultant decrease in TSH. As a result there is a decrease in 131I uptake; eventually, however, the main phase is that of a hypothyroid state

Acute there is an increase in thyroid hormones, leading to a decrease in TSH. The result is a decrease in I131 uptake; in the end, however, the main stage is hypothyroidism

• Subacute lymphocytic thyroiditis / silent thyroiditis

Subacute lymphadenitis / silent thyroiditis / postpartum thyroiditis

 painless

no pain

 young women, especially in postpartum period

young women, especially in the postpartum period

land is usually normal in size, or minimally increased

The gland is usually of normal size or of minimal increase in size.

 usually an early hyperthyroid state which returns to normal, but may have a transient late hypothyroid period.

Usually a state of hyperthyroidism soon after returning to normal, but a late transient hypothyroidism may be present.

Hashimoto thyroiditis – Hashimoto’s thyroiditis
 F> M 10: 1 – Female / male: 10: 1
 associated with – in combination with:
Down syndrome and Turner syndrome – Down syndrome and Turner syndrome
autoimmune conditions including systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjögren syndrome and myasthenia gravis

Autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjögren’s syndrome and myasthenia gravis

primary thyroid lymphoma

Primary thyroid lymphoma

 anti-TSH-receptor-autoantibodies

autoantibodies against TSH receptors

CD8 + cytotoxic T-cell mediated

CD8 +-mediated immunity (cytotoxic T cells).

 usually hypothyroid, although there may be a brief hyperthyroid early phase

usually hypothyroidism, although there may be an early stage of short hyperthyroidism.

• Riedel thyroiditis – Riedel thyroiditis
 distinctive in that inflammation extends beyond the confines of the gland in to adjacent tissues

especially in that the inflammation is beyond the limit of the gland to neighboring tissues

 typically presents as a hard goiter which commonly compresses the trachea; it is hypoenhancing and hypoechogenic

typically manifests itself as a stiff goiter that often compresses the trachea; less contrast and attenuation drug

 associated with – in combination with ::
retroperitoneal fibrosis

retroperitoneal fibrosis

primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC)

Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC).

Note: although Graves disease is autoimmune it is not really a thyroiditis as it does not have a significant inflammatory component.

Note: although Graves’ disease (Basdow) is an autoimmune disease, it is not really thyroiditis since it does not have a significant inflammatory component.

3.2. Infective – Infections

Includes thyroiditis associated with

These include inflammation of the thyroid gland associated with:


(pneumonia caused by Pneumocystis infection)

 MAIC: Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection

Infections caused by the Mycobacterium avium complex

 Fungal


4. History and etymology

History and etymology / etymology

• “Thyroid” derives from the Greek word “θνρεός” (large oblong shield) and “είδος” (-like) 5. The Greek shield had a notch cut into it for the chin, and the resemblance of the shield to a particular piece of cartilage in the neck brought about the term “thyreoid cartilage” (the “e” was later dropped).

“Thyroid” comes from the Greek word “θνρεός” (large oblong shield) and “είδος” (-like). The Greek shield had a notch for the chin, and its resemblance to a specific portion of the cartilage in the neck yielded the term “thyreoid cartilage” (the letter “e” was subsequently removed).

• The thyroid gland was originally known as the “laryngeal gland”, and was renamed the “thyroid gland” by Thomas Wharton in 1646.

The thyroid was originally called the “laryngeal gland”, and was renamed “thyroid” by Thomas Wharton in 1646.

Follow the other articles to foster more medical knowledge and medical English terminology at anhvanyds.com homepage.

BS. Vo Thi Thanh Huong

Nghe An Cancer Hospital

Reference source: https://radiopaedia.org/articles/thyroid-gland?lang=us

Leave a Reply