DAY 27 – Sharpen your IELTS Reading Skill – MATCHING FEATURES – Practice reading online

Matching Features belongs to a form in Matching, but you should not be confused but pay close attention to apply the effective steps.

1. What are Matching Features?

Many of you confuse the types of Matching. Matching Headings is to find the main content and match it with the title of the paragraph. Matching Information is to find information in a text and match it with the corresponding passage. And here is the Matching Features, which is to connect the information in the reading with the corresponding Features, “Features” here can be “personal names, places, types, years …” but most of what I see is “name” mainly. It can be the names of scientists, the names of the characters mentioned in the article, the names of the body parts (parts of the brain), the names of the types of thinking, the research papers …

The way to do this type of article is quite simple, but it is also very easy to get wrong because the reading will deceive and interfere with a lot of information. Should be based on reading – understanding and sensitivity, not emotional, not self-inferential and especially completely based on INFORMATION PROVIDED in the reading.
How to do the lesson I will talk about below, please take a look at the post format!

Matching Features ielts reading

Illustrated Matching Features

2. How to do Matching Features

Step 1: Underline the keywords in the question + Circle Features

The first thing we need to do is underline the keywords in the article, have not read the passage! Because this type of Matching Feature, we already have all the information available, so I recommend this Keywords underline should be done quickly to conduct Scanning of the name + Read the text. For example

1. Giving up short-term happiness for future gains

-> Note: give up, short-term happy, for future

2. Maintaining the bodily functions necessary for life

-> Attention: maintain, bodily functions, necessary

Step 2: Scanning Feature in the reading passage

You read carefully the Feature to see what it is a list of. For example, list of scientists’ names, list of proper names, list of names of universities, list of scientific names indicating the human body…

Once you’ve mastered it, let’s do it in parallel with other types of lessons! (Almost any type of Matching can be done in parallel.) In the process of reading the passage, if you see any particular name in the list above, circle/frame it so that it stands out. Then read the sentences around there, if you match any information, then choose the answer!

It sounds so simple, but 100% sure there will be noisy information that makes us wonder, or read forever but do not understand which feature it belongs to. At that time, tick 1 mark and then move on to the next sentence.

Usually there are a few points you need to keep in mind:

For example, List is a list of the names of literary authors. Then Mr. X’s own name appeared in paragraph B. It’s not just there. But you still have to read the entire article, which means that Mr. X’s name will still appear in paragraphs G, H, etc. But sometimes you don’t have to circle your own name. Because the passage can completely give equivalent words to refer to Mr. X, for example “he”, “he says”, “this author”,…. So you must read carefully!

Step 3: Check the answer

In this step, you can check the questions you are still confused about. And use the exclusion method too. If you see a feature that is used too much, for example, the topic has 7 questions, and that feature appears 5, 6 times, then there is a high chance that it is wrong somewhere!

In general, I often re-read this section to check that the answer is definitely correct, because this is a not too difficult Matching form, so I don’t want to lose points for this part. Most of you are wrong because of skimming, reading carelessly, not carefully…, but in this form, I don’t see any trick, too much cheating… so try your best not to be wrong!

3. Practice

The Triune Brain

The first of our three brains to evolve is what scientists call the reptilian cortex. This brain sustains the elementary activities of animal survival such as respiration, adequately rest and a beating heart. We are not required to consciously “think” about these activities. The reptilian cortex also houses the startle center”, a mechanism that facilitates reactions to unexpected occurrences in our surroundings. That lurch you experience when a door slams shut somewhere in the house, or the heightened awareness you feel when a twig cracks in a nearby bush while out on an evening stroll are both examples of the reptilian cortex at work. When it comes to our interaction with others, the reptilian brain offers up only the most basic impulses: aggression, mating, and territorial defense. There is no great difference, in this sense, between a crocodile defends its spot along the river and a turf war between two urban gangs.

Although the lizard may stake a claim to its habitat, it exerts total indifference towards the well-being of its young. Listen to the anguished squeal of a dolphin separated from its pod or witness the sight of elephants mourning their dead, however, and it is clear that a new development is at play. Scientists have identified this as the limbic cortex. Unique to mammals, the limbic cortex impels creatures to nurture their offspring by delivering feelings of tenderness and warmth to the parent when children are nearby. These same sensations also cause mammals to develop various types of social relations and kinship networks. When we are with others of “our kind” – be it at soccer practice, church, school or a nightclub – we experience positive sensations of togetherness, solidarity and comfort. If we spend too long away from these networks, then loneliness sets in and encourages us to seek companionship.

Only human capabilities extend far beyond the scope of these two cortexes. Humans eat, sleep and play, but we also speak, plot, rationalise and debate finer points of morality. Our unique abilities are the result of an expansive third brain – the neocortex – which engages with logic, reason and ideas. The power of the neocortex comes from its ability to think beyond the present, concrete moment. While other mammals are mainly restricted to impulsive actions (although some, such as apes, can learn and remember simple lessons), can think about the “big picture”. We can string together simple lessons (for example, an apple drops downwards from a tree; hurting others causes unhappiness) to develop complex theories of physical or social phenomena (such as the laws of gravity and a concern for human rights).

The neocortex is also responsible for the process by which we decide on and commit to particular courses of action. Strung together over time, these choices can accumulate into feats of progress unknown to other animals. Anticipating a better grade on the following morning’s exam, a student can ignore the limbic urge to socialise and go to sleep early instead. Over three years, this ongoing sacrifice translates into a first class degree and a scholarship to graduate school; over a lifetime, it can mean ground-breaking contributions to human knowledge and development. The ability to sacrifice our drive for immediate satisfaction in order to benefit later is a product of the neocortex.

Understanding the triune brain can help us appreciate the different natures of brain damage and psychological disorders. The most devastating form of brain damage, for example, is a condition in which someone is understood to be brain dead. In this state a person appears merely unconscious – sleeping, perhaps – but this is illusory. Here, the reptilian brain is functioning on autopilot despite the permanent loss of other cortexes.

Disturbances to the limbic cortex are registered in a different manner. Pups with limbic damage can move around and feed themselves well enough but do not register the presence of their littermates. Scientists have observed how, after a limbic lobotomy , “one impaired monkey stepped on his outraged peers as if treading on a log or a rock”. In our own species, limbic damage is closely related to sociopathic behaviour. Sociopaths in possession of fully-functioning neocortexes are often shrewd and emotionally intelligent people but lack any ability to relate to, empathise with or express concern for others.

One of the neurological wonders of history occurred when a railway worker named Phineas Gage survived an incident during which a metal rod skewered his skull, taking a considerable amount of his neocortex with it. Although Gage continued to live and work as before, his fellow employees observed a shift in the equilibrium of his personality. Gage’s animal properties were now sharply pronounced while his intellectual abilities suffered; garrulous or obscene jokes replaced his once quick wit. New findings suggest, however, that Gage managed to soften these abrupt changes over time and rediscover an appropriate social manner. This would indicate that reparative therapy has the potential to help patients with advanced brain trauma to gain an improved quality of life.

Source: The British Council 2012.

Questions 14–22

Classify the following as typical of

A The reptilian cortex

B The limbic cortex

C The neocortex

Write the correct letter, A, B or C, in boxes 14–22 on your answer sheet.

14 Giving up short-term happiness for future gains

15 Maintaining the bodily functions necessary for life

16 Experiencing the pain of losing another

17 Forming communities and social groups

18 Making a decision and carrying it out

19 Guarding areas of land

20 Developing explanations for things

21 Looking after one’s young

22 Responding quickly to sudden movement and noise

KEY ANSWER
14
15 A
16 BEGINS
17 BEGINS
18 CORE
19 A
20 C
21 BEGINS
22 A

Link to download PDF version:

See more lessons with the same route:

Sharpen your IELTS Reading Skill – SHORT ANSWER

Sharpen your IELTS Reading Skill – MATCHING INFORMATION

  Unit 5: Strategies for Completing notes and summaries

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