Clinical symptoms of chickenpox

Clinical symptoms of chickenpox

Chickenpox is an acute infectious disease caused by Varicella – Zoster virus, characterized by fever and blisters on the skin.

What age can get chickenpox?

Chickenpox is a disease that can occur at any age, regardless of sex, but most often occurs in children from 1 to 10 years of age. Infants under 6 months of age are less likely to have a temporary immunity from their mother. Pregnant women with chickenpox usually have many complications and can cause fetal malformations.

How is chickenpox spread?

The chicken pox virus is present in the respiratory tract of the infected person; Usually one day prior to sprouting bananas until 5 days after sprouting. Chickenpox infection mainly comes from salivary glands, or through direct contact with skin lesions. Also due to contact with clothing, toys, tools … have been infected with the virus from the patient.

In kindergartens, schools, if any children have chickenpox but not detected early and quarantine, the risk of spread is very high.

Clinical symptoms of chickenpox

From the onset of the virus until symptoms appear for 14 to 21 days. At first, the patient usually mild fever but also may not have a fever, fatigue accompanied by the red rash on the skin. Patients may have abdominal pain, anorexia, cough or diarrhea.

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After one to two days, the initial rashes will evolve into blisters that contain fluid, which, after a short period of time, becomes turbid and gradually dries down and scales; Finally, the scales peel off but do not leave scars. Most vesicles are small in size with a diameter of 5 mm, in the form of circles or ovals, slightly creased on the skin, appearing first on the face and body, then throughout the body.


Vesicles on the skin appear differently on the same area (about 2-3 times within 5 days and then stop) so that on the same skin can see lesions at different stages with Different sizes: erythema, clear blisters, turbid blisters, dry blisters, and scabs. In addition, during the rash often accompanied by itching many patients do not rest.

In addition to the skin, can vesicles of chickenpox also be able to grow in any other position?

Vesicles in chickenpox can appear on the mucosa (pharynx, conjunctiva, trachea, vagina, and anus); Here the blisters quickly burst and form shallow sores, causing pain, restriction eating, swallowing pain and irritation. In addition, blisters can also float inside the eyelid or on the conjunctiva, causing swelling of the eyelid and inflammation of the sclera, but most of it is completely healed and has no complications.

Congenital chickenpox?

Congenital chickenpox is a disease that occurs when the mother has chickenpox in the first three months of pregnancy. After 20 weeks of gestation, mothers with chickenpox rarely produce congenital chickenpox.

Skin manifestations (70%), eye disorders (66%), mental retardation (46%) and low birth weight (50%).

Neonatal Varicella?

Children who have chickenpox within 5 days before birth and 2 days after birth are at risk of having chickenpox. Neonatal Varicella is more severe and more complicated because they do not receive protective antibodies from their mothers and immature immune systems. Infants with newborn chickenpox usually have organ damage, most commonly lung injury.

Patient care

People with chickenpox should be isolated early to prevent spread.

The sick person needs rest, wears thin, light, spacious and cool clothing. Pay attention to keep personal hygiene, keep skin clean, dry; Avoid rubbing on the skin to break the blisters. Children especially need to cut off the nail to avoid scratching the skin. Regularly changing clothes, washing separately, drying in the sun; Sterilization of personal tools …

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Patients with chickenpox should not abstain from bathing, the wind so that the skin will be wet, dirty and very itchy

When blisters break, use topical medications such as 1% violet, Milan, methylene blue … to prevent bacterial infection.

Be careful not to cover any leaves and do not rinse the pustules as they can easily cause skin infections.

If you have complications or signs of abnormalities, you should go to medical facilities immediately.

When and how to take acyclovir?

Acyclovir is an antiviral drug commonly used in people with chickenpox to suppress the proliferation of the virus; This will limit the spread and shorten the duration of the disease. Acyclovir is effective when used early, the drug is most effective when used within 24 hours before the appearance of blisters. The drug is used for 5 to 7 days or until no new blisters appear

Acyclovir can be taken by mouth, injection or on the spot (topically applied); where oral route is usually chosen.

Oral dosage:

Children under 12 years: oral dose of 20mg / kg / dose 5 times / day for 5-7 days (total dose not more than 800mg / dose)

Adults and children> 12 years of age: 800 mg once a day for 5 to 7 days

Some common side effects are gastrointestinal disturbances and headache

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Clinical symptoms of chickenpox

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