As in the previous lesson, the goal of this lesson is to help you understand the pathology and get the vocabulary. Please read the Internal Medicine Pathology book for more details. Thank you for your interest and sincerely welcome comments from you, especially those working in the field of internal medicine, to improve the article.

The heart wall has three layers from the inside out, respectively:

• endocardium: endocardium

• myocardium: heart muscle

• epicardium: epicardium

(In addition, the heart is also enclosed in a bag (sac) called the pericardium, this sac has two layers (layer) includes the leaves (parietal layer) and viscera (visceral layer)).

Blood vessels supplying the heart, coronary arteries (artery coronary), coronary heart disease (artery disease), acute coronary syndrome (acute coronary syndrome). Some terms to keep in mind:

* Stable angina (stable angina or chronic stable angina or angina pectoris)

* Unstable angina

* Acute Non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (Non-STEMI, also known as subendocardial MI or subendocardial infarction)

* Acute ST-elevation segmental myocardial infarction (STEMI, also known as transmural MI, meaning transmural MI)


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Normally, the heart muscle needs oxygen to function properly.myocardium needs enough oxygen to function properly), this is briefly referred to as myocardial oxygen demand (oxygen need). The coronary arteries that supply enough oxygen to the myocardium are written as Situs Judi Slot Mudah Menang adequate supply or adequate supply. Reading the book, you can see the following: artery coronary properly supplies blood for oxygen need/demand of the myocardium to function properly This means that the coronary arteries cannot supply enough blood to the heart muscle’s oxygen needs for it to function properly.

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It would be quite remiss to talk about coronary heart disease but not to mention atherosclerotic plaque (plaque, stem from ather/o, atherosclerosis is an atherosclerotic disease of the blood vessels, sometimes it says fat substance, note adipo- is the root of fat, tissue adipose is adipose tissue).

Atherosclerotic plaque deposits on the walls of blood vessels (to deposit on: deposition). It is divided into mild or early stage atherosclerotic plaque (early plaque), or the atheroma stage causing severe narrowing (critial obstruction, >70%). In addition, atheroma is classified into Daftar Situs judi slot terbaik dan terpercaya no 1 stable and unstable (stable/unstable plaque), unstable plaque can rupture or peel (rupture) facilitates platelet invasion (adhesion), conglomerate (aggregation) and finally thromboembolism (thrombotic occlusion).


– At rest (At rest): relative lack of blood supply to myocardium but no chest pain occurs (relatively lack of blood supply)

– Exertion (On exertion): Increased oxygen demand leads to anemia (ischemic period) causes chest pain, this pain is called stable angina (stable angina)

However, the patient may present with pain even at rest due to the formation of platelet thrombus causing blockage leading to lack of blood supply to the situs judi slot terbaik dan terpercaya no 1 myocardium, this pain is called unstable angina.unstable angel). The patient experienced an anemia episode (ischemia: anemia, ischemic (adj), ischemic period ischemic phase), if this stage is prolonged, causing myocardial cell necrosis, it is called myocardial infarction (infarct: myocardial infarction: myocardial infarction).

* In myocardial infarction, if the platelet thrombus is dissolved (lysis occur), then the ECG presentation is myocardial infarction with non-ST-segment elevation (non-STEMI, or subendocardial MI)


* If the obstruction is complete and there is no thrombolysis of the platelets, the term is Acute MI.


See also part 2:

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Wish you all good study!

DrDuy Medical English


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